Premiership: All the Ins and Outs
IN THE SPOTLIGHT: A large number of new players have arrived in the Premiership over the close season with some moving between clubs in England's top flight.
Below the list of those arriving at and leaving the 12 clubs.
In: Luke Charteris (Racing 92), Taulupe Faletau (Newport Gwent Dragons), Elliott Stooke (Gloucester Rugby), Michael van Vuuren (Leicester Tigers), Harry Davies (Cardiff Blues), Kahn Fotuali’i (Northampton Saints), Jack Walker (Yorkshire Carnegie)
Out: Will Spencer (Worcester Warriors), Ollie Devoto (Exeter Chiefs), Rob Webber (Sale Sharks), Jonathan Evans (Scarlets), Luke Arscott (Bristol Rugby), Max Northcote-Green (London Irish), Brett Herron (Ulster), Stuart Hooper (retired), Dominic Day (Toyota Verblitz), Amanaki Mafi, Tom Woolstencroft (Wasps), Leroy Houston (Queensland Reds), Horacio Agulla (Castres Olympique) Kyle Eastmond (Wasps), Alafoti Fa’osiliva (Worcester Warriors)
Ins: Jordan Williams (Scarlets), Rhodri Williams (Scarlets), Jordan Crane (Leicester), Jon Fisher (Northampton), Thretton Palamo (London Welsh), Tusi Pisi (Sunwolves), Nick Fenton-Wells (Bedford), Giorgi Nemsadze (Tarbes), Soane Tonga'uiha (Oyonnax), Will Hurrell (Doncaster Knights) and Ryan Bevington (Ospreys)
Outs: George Watkins (Jersey) Marco Mama (Worcester), Matthew Morgan (Cardiff), Ellis Genge (Leicester), Josh Ovens (released), Tommaso Benvenuti (Treviso), Craig Hampson (Wasps), James Stephenson (released).
In: Dave Dennis (Waratahs), Ollie Devoto (Bath Rugby), Greg Holmes (Queensland Reds)
Out: Jack Arnott (Cornish Pirates), Chrysander Botha (Released), Alex Brown (Perpignan), Adam Hughes (Dragons), Josh Jones (Salford Reds), Byron McGuigan (Sale Sharks), Jerry Sexton (London Irish), Lewis Stevenson (Connacht), Brett Sturgess (Retired), Jake Woolmore (Jersey).
Ins: Tom Denton (Leinster), Josh Hohneck (Highlanders), Lewis Ludlow (Academy), Motu Matu’u (Hurricanes), Matt Scott (Edinburgh Rugby), Andy Symons (Worcester Warriors), Ollie Thorley (Academy), Cameron Orr (Greater Sydney Rams), Dan Thomas (Academy)
Outs: Rob Cook (released), Tom Hicks (Rotherhan Titans), Steve McColl (Yorkshire Carnegie), Dan Murphy (released), Steph Reynolds (released), Elliott Stooke (Bath Rugby), Nick Wood (released)
In: Cameron Holenstein (Pau) Aaron Morris (Saracens), Charlie Mulchrone (Worcester Warriors), Mark Reddish (Highlanders) Ruaridh Jackson (Wasps), George Naoupu (Connacht), Gabriel Ibitoye, Dino Lamb-Cona, Jonas Mikalcius, Niall Saunders
Out: Beau Robinson (unattached), Ben Botica (Montpellier), Kieran Treadwell (Ulster), Luke White (unattached), Mofe Wilkey (unattached), Sam Egerton (Newcastle Falcons), Tito Tebaldi (Treviso), Nick Easter (Harlequins’ Defence Coach)
In: Tom Brady (Sale Sharks), Pat Cilliers (Montpellier), Ellis Genge (Bristol Rugby), George McGuigan (Newcastle Falcons), JP Pietersen (Stormers), Matt Toomua (Brumbies)
Out: Matias Aguero (Provence Rugby), Seremaia Bai (retired), Tommy Bell (London Irish), Miles Benjamin (retired), Gonzalo Camacho, Jordan Crane (Bristol Rugby), Sebastian de Chaves (London Irish), Jean de Villiers (retired), Jake Farnworth, Leonardo Ghiraldini (Toulouse), Vereniki Goneva (Newcastle Falcons), Christian Loamanu (Provence Rugby), Niall Morris (Leinster Rugby), Tiziano Pasquali (Benetton Treviso), Laurence Pearce (Sale Sharks), Aniseko Sio, George Tresidder (Rotherham Titans), Michael van Vuuren (Bath Rugby), Jake Farnworth (Birmingham Moseley), Opeti Fonua (Newcastle Falcons)
In: Nick Civetta (I Medicei, Italy), Kyle Cooper (Sharks, SA), Andrew Davidson (Glasgow), Sam Egerton (England 7s), Vereniki Goneva (Leicester Tigers), Joel Hodgson (Yorkshire Carnegie), Tyrone Holmes (Glasgow Warriors) Sam Lockwood (Jersey), Evan Olmstead (London Scottish), Harrison Orr (Ealing), Ben Sowrey (Worcester), Opeti Fonua (Leicester Tigers)
Out: Todd Clever, Eric Fry, Josh Furno (Zebre), Rob Hawkins (retired), Richard Mayhew (Yorkshire Carnegie), George McGuigan (Leicester), Kane Thompson (Manawatu), Giovanbattista Venditti (Zebre), Gonzalo Tiesi, Ruki Tipuna, Alesana Tuilagi, Andy Tuilagi
In: Matt Beesley (prop, Wharfedale), Charlie Clare (hooker, Bedford Blues), Nic Groom (scrum-half, Western Province), Louis Picamoles (Toulouse), Juan Pablo Estelles (Atletico del Rosario)
Out: Alex Corbisiero (prop, sabbatical), Jon Fisher (back row, Bristol), Kahn Fotuali’I (scrum-half, Bath), Danny Hobbs-Awoyemi (prop, London Irish), Pat Howard (centre, Newport Gwent Dragons), Victor Matfield (lock, retired), Matti Williams (hooker, Worcester), Alex Woolford (lock, released),
In: Laurence Pearce (Leicester Tigers), Rob Webber (Bath Rugby), Josh Charnley (Wigan Warriors RL), AJ MacGinty (Connacht), Dan Mugford (Nottingham), Kieran Longbottom (Saracens), Paolo Odogwu (Leicester Tigers), Mike Phillips (Racing 92), Halani Aulika (London Irish), Lou Reed (Cardiff Blues), Byron McGuigan (Exeter Chiefs), Curtis Langdon (London Irish)
Out: Danny Cipriani (Wasps), Tommy Taylor (Wasps), Joe Ford (Yorkshire Carnegie), Vadim Cobilas (Bordeaux Begles), Chris Cusiter (retired), Tom Brady (Leicester Tigers), Viliami Fihaki (Edinburgh), Mark Easter (Retired), Nick Macleod (Newport Gwent Dragons), Phil Mackenzie (San Diego Breakers).
Ins: Schalk Burger (Stormers), Mark Flanagan (Bedford Blues), Alex Lozowski (Wasps), Vincent Koch (Stormers), Sean Maitland (London Irish), Save Rawaca (Fiji 7s)
Outs: Biyi Alo (to Worcester Warriors), Jacques Burger (retired), Catalin Fercu (to Timisoara Saracens), Rhys Gill (to Cardiff Blues), Charlie Hodgson (retired), Ernst Joubert (retired), Baden Kerr (released), Kieran Longbottom (to Sale Sharks), Nils Mordt (retired), Aaron Morris (to Harlequins) Dave Porecki (to London Irish), Hayden Smith (Esher), Ben Ransom (to London Irish), Max Wilkins (released).
In: Guy Armitage (London Welsh), Kurtley Beale (NSW Waratahs), Danny Cipriani (Sale Sharks), Tom Cruse (London Irish), Nick De Luca (Biarritz Olympique), Kyle Eastmond (Bath Rugby), Marcus Garratt (Cornish Pirates), Craig Hampson (Bristol Rugby), Willie Le Roux (Canon Eagles, Arrives in January), Marty Moore (Leinster Rugby), Matt Symons (London Irish), Tommy Taylor (Sale Sharks), Tom Woolstencroft (Bath Rugby)
Out: Lorenzo Cittadini (Bayonne), Bradley Davies (Ospreys), James Downey (retired), Carlo Festuccia (Zebre), Ruaridh Jackson (Harlequins), Ben Jacobs (retired), Alex Lozowski (Saracens), Andrea Masi (retired), Charles Piutau (Ulster), Siale Piutau (Yamaha Jubilo), Edd Shervington (retired), George Smith (Suntory Sungoliath & Queensland Reds), Jamie Stevenson (London Scottish).
In: Will Spencer (Bath Rugby), Ben Te’o (Leinster Rugby), Matti Williams (Northampton Saints), Jackson Willison (Grenoble), Marco Mama (Bristol Rugby), Alafoti Faosiliva (Bath Rugby), Biyi Alo (Saracens – Injury Dispensation)
Out: Jean-Baptise Bruzulier (Nevers), Ravai Fatiaki (released), Dan George (released), Mat Gilbert (Hartpury College), Alex Grove (Moseley), Charlie Mulchrone (Harlequins), Darren O’Shea (Munster Rugby), Joe Rees (Rotherham Titans), Dan Sanderson (Yorkshire Carnegie), Sam Smith (retired), Ben Sowrey (Newcastle Falcons), Heath Stevens (London Welsh), Andy Symons (Gloucester Rugby)